• in

    6 Surprising DMAA Powder Health Benefits

    dmaa powder

    DMAA Powder is a central nervous system stimulant that often goes by the name Methylhexanamine HCL, or Geranium Extract, and seems to come with a wide variety of health benefits from nasal decongestion to a possible alternative treatment for ADHD. DMAA Powder is currently available in many workout supplements and can be purchased at a surprisingly low price.

    About DMAA Powder

    DMAA powder was originally developed by Eli Lilly in 1944 during their search for the perfect nasal decongestant. However, during this search they found that DMAA powder also had some impressive stimulant and mood enhancing effects. The company discontinued production of DMAA powder after discovering Propylhexamine Hcl, another very potent nasal decongestant.

    Benefits of DMAA Powder

    DMAA Powder as a Pre-Workout Booster

    DMAA powder works as a very powerful stimulant, increasing available levels of dopamine and norepinephrine. The stimulant effects provide a general increase in energy and the increase in available neurotransmitters are said to increase focus. Methylhexanamine also acts as a vasoconstrictor, meaning that it causes blood vessels to contract. These contractions mildly increase blood pressure and deliver increased amounts of blood to the muscles. This mechanism is very similar to the “Fight-or-Flight” response which is triggered when humans encounter a threat. The increased amounts of energy, focus, and blood flow to muscles make it a great pre-workout supplement. Many report that DMAA works synergistically with other pre-workout ingredients such as caffeine.

    DMAA Powder for Fat-Burning and Weight Loss

    Methylhexanamine powder has great thermogenic properties which may contribute to increased fat metabolism and weight loss. Body heat is often a byproduct of increased metabolism. DMAA powder has shown to slightly increase body temperature (a common side effect of stimulant drugs) which indicates that the body is metabolizing at a higher rate. Several studies also show that DMAA powder is very effective in those that are trying to lose weight.

    DMAA Powder as a Mood Enhancer

    Several studies show that DMAA powder works as a mild monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). Monoamine Oxidase is an enzyme that is released to break down neurotransmitters such as dopamine and epinephrine (adrenaline). Methylhexanamine is thought to reduce the amount of the enzyme that breaks these neurotransmitters down. The end result = an influx in the amount of beneficial dopamine and epinephrine available in the brain and a nice boost of energy.

    DMAA Powder for ADHD

    As mentioned above, the increased availability of neurotransmitters like dopamine and norepinephrine make it a great possible treatment for those with Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADHD). The disorder is thought to be caused mainly by a deficiency of dopamine and may also be caused by deficiencies in norepinephrine and serotonin, which makes it difficult for those with ADHD to focus and pay attention at times when focus is needed. There are many reports by people with ADHD that have used DMAA powder that say it drastically increased their ability to concentrate and focus on important tasks.

    DMAA Powder for Mental Endurance

    Many DMAA powder users also report having the ability to concentrate or study for longer periods of time than they would be able to without using DMAA. This is most likely caused by methylhexamine’s stimulant effects and may be cause, in part, by the thermogenic factors as well.

    DMAA as a Nasal Decongestant

    It is a general misconception that nasal congestion (usually caused by the common cold, Flu, a sinus infection, or allergies) is caused by excess mucous, however, nasal congestion is typically caused by issues with the blood vessels that surround the nasal cavities. Most of the nasal congestion is a result of dilated or inflamed blood vessels. This is what caused Ely Lilly to design DMAA. They were investigating potential drugs to reduce inflammation and to constrict vessels in the nasal cavity. They found DMAA to be extremely effective in shrinking vessels and decreasing nasal congestion symptoms.

    DMAA Powder Safety

    Because DMAA Powder causes desirable effects such as increased senses of well-being, increased energy levels, and fat/weight loss, there have been incidents with some individuals misusing the supplement. This has sparked interest by the FDA and created some concerns. However, the cases that have gained the FDA’s attention usually involved users taking ten times more than the recommended dose of 25 – 75mg and often involved use of other drugs such as caffeine (in high amounts) and/or alcohol.

    Some of the possible side effects of DMAA powder include increased blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, excessive vasoconstriction, headache, or irritability. However, used moderately and in low doses (common sense, people!), DMAA powder shows to be very effective and usually tolerated well by most individuals.

  • in ,

    Possible Sustanon 250 Medical Benefits

    injection-of-sustanon-250

    Anybody that has a basic understanding of anabolic steroids has probably heard of the ever-popular Sustanon 250 blend, that naturally has a fairly bad reputation due to the 1980-1990s “steroid epidemic”.  But, most probably haven’t heard the other side of the story – that Sustanon 250 could actually provide medical benefits to some through availability of the drug on the prescription market.  This article will discuss several of these potential medical benefits.  We’ll let you decide for yourself whether this drug should be available for medical prescription!

    About Sustanon 250

    Sustanon 250 is a brilliant oil-based blend of four of the best types of testosterone that provide benefit to human males.  The steroid blend features both short and long (ester) testosterone forms in a single compound.  A Sustanon 250 dose allows users to obtain stable testosterone blood serum levels without having to re-dose, or inject the drug frequently.  Bodybuilders and athletes commonly undergo a Sustanon 250 cycle to rapidly build muscle and for cutting cycles, or to rapidly lose body fat without losing much of the muscle fiber that they have gained.  Sustanon 250 is currently not approved by the FDA for human use in the United States.  It is currently listed as a Schedule 3 Drug.

    One dose (or 1 milliliter) of Sustanon 250 delivers a total of 250mg of Testosterone to the body.  The content of each ester testosterone in the Sustanon 250 formulation are listed below:

    100mg Testosterone Decanoate
    60mg Testosterone Phenylpropionate
    60mg Testosterone Isocaproate
    30mg Testosterone Propionate

    sustanon-250
    Vials of Susutanon 250

    Potential Medical Benefits of Sustanon 250

    In recent years, aging has become a popular subject for scientific studies due to the anti-aging industry growing by the day.  Many of these studies have revealed a huge number of conditions and disorders that may be caused by low amounts of testosterone levels in men.  Many of these conditions were previously thought to have other underlying causes.  This makes Sustanon 250 a great potential medication to be used in the medical field due to its potency, stability, and amazing effects.  Below are some of the hypothetical benefits that may be experienced with the use of Sustanon 250:

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    This disorder is a cognitive behavioral disorder that affects both men and women.  Those that suffer from BDD often experience anxiety, stress, and depression due to being unhappy with their physical appearance.  This disorder is becoming more and more prevalent due to the physical appearance of marketing models being extremely fit and masculine (in male models).  This causes many men to believe they are not masculine.  In extreme situations, while being closely monitored by a medical physician, Sustanon 250 could be used to aid males in rapid muscular hypertrophy which may decrease the negative psychological effects of BDD.

    Employment Eligibility and Increased Work Performance

    While equal rights in America have given some individuals a fighting chance that wish to perform certain work duties, there are still many professions that prevent certain individuals from gaining employment.  Certain duties in the construction and firefighting industries require that individuals be able to lift certain amounts of weight and other physically challenging tasks.  Sustanon 250 could benefit individuals whose physical limitations prevent them from being able to perform physically challenging tasks.

    Sustanon 250 may also increase the amount of work output in certain individuals that perform physical tasks in their line of work.  An interesting argument relating to this subject is the treatment of ADHD.  By taking stimulant drugs, millions of ADHD sufferers are able to increase their concentration, focus, and are able to increase their work output and have better overall quality of live.

    Weakened Immune System

    Several studies suggest that lower doses of testosterone (doses below 500mg) may increase immune system functions.  More research is needed to determine if Sustanon 250 treatments could help those with diminished immune function, but we thought that this is definitely worth mentioning!

    Obesity

    In the United States especially, obesity is a growing problem.  Sustanon 250’s obvious ability to increase fat metabolism alongside exercise make it an excellent possible treatment for obesity.  Many that become obese also suffer from other problems, such as joint problems, which limit them from obtaining necessary amounts of exercise.  Sustanon 250 may also aid in supporting extra strength needed to exercise regularly and prevent injuries caused by basic exercise, which may help those that are obese participate in a regular exercise regimen.

    Extreme Depression

    Several forms of depression, related to low testosterone levels, have been identified in recent years.  Some studies also suggest that raising testosterone levels result in increased moods and feelings of well being.  Under appropriate care by physicians and psychologists, Sustanon 250 may potentially be a successful method of treatment in those that suffer from depression caused by low testosterone production.

    Chronic Fatique & Lethargy

    Another common effect of low testosterone in men can be chronic fatigue, lack of energy, and lethargy in individuals.  Sustanon 250’s ability to rapidly increase testosterone levels make it a great possible medication to treat low energy levels in men with low testosterone levels.

    Incentive to Exercise Consistently

    I don’t expect to ever see Sustanon 250 as a medication for exercise incentive, but I do find it to be an interesting concept.  And, if I were a physician with the ability to prescribe Sustanon250 for this incentive, I very well probably would.  One of the most common reasons that men don’t exercise as frequently as they should is that they lose the incentive to do so by hitting plateaus.  There are usually methods of overcoming plateaus, but the fact is, they do happen and they can kill your desire to exercise.  There are definitely risks associated with using Sustanon 250, but if used properly and under the supervision of a physician, I think that the benefits could outweigh the risks.  Considering the negative effects of the alternative of not exercising all together, Sustanon 250 use may not be so bad at all!

    Hormone Replacement Therapy in Transgender Individuals

    Again, more studies are needed to determine for sure if Sustanon 250 would be beneficial to those undergoing female-to-male transformations, but it looks like a viable candidate due to its high potency and stability.  At least two esters of the testosterone in Sustanon 250 are currently used in some forms of hormone replacement therapy in transgender individuals.

    steroid-sustanon-250
    Sustanon 250 May Help with Obesity

    Sustanon 250 Side Effects

    It wouldn’t be ethically right to discuss all of the potential advantages of Sustanon 250 without also discussing some of the possible side effects that may occur with use of the blended steroid.   It should also be noted that anabolic steroids should not be used without the supervision of a physician.  Doctors have the ability of conducting blood tests to monitor your hormone levels and can prescribe medications to prevent or treat unwanted side effects.  Below are some of the most common side effects that may be experienced with the use of Sustanon 250:

    Gynecomastia & Water Retention

    Gynecomastia is the enlargement of a man’s breasts.  This side effect is common with many types of anabolic steroids and is usually caused by testosterone converting into estrogen by the aromatase enzyme.  Higher estogren levels may also cause the body to retain more water than usual, which may increase blood pressure.  Many Sustanon 250 users combat these side effects with Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) or Aromatase Inhibitors (AIs).

    Androgenic Side Effects

    Due to the potent androgenic effects of Sustanon 250, users may experience side effects like hair loss, acne, or rapid growth of body hair.  These side effects have a lot to do with genetic dispositions.  These side effects are typically caused by the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but are usually reversed or slowed after a user ends their Sustanon 250 cycle.

    Changes is Cholesterol

    Some men that experience increases of testosterone show that their good cholesterol (HDL) levels are reduced.  This effect is very dose-dependent.

    Testosterone Suppression

    With sufficient amounts of testosterone being administered throughout the body, natural testosterone production is slowed or stops all together.  Most Sustanon 250 users will plan post cycle therapy to include a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator to keep estrogen levels low and to speed up the body’s ability to start producing testosterone again.

    Not all users of Sustanon 250 will experience noticeable negative side effects, but since a dose of the anabolic steroid delivers 250mg of testosterone (which is a significant dose) it is common for some adverse effects to occur.  However, most of Sustanon 250’s side effects subside after discontinuing use of the steroid.

    Sustanon 250 Summary

    Today, there are thousands of great drugs available on the prescription market that offer a wide range of benefits to people.  Studies are showing that many of these drugs also offer hundreds of great off-label benefits as well.  It is my belief, that with time, many of the potential benefits of anabolic steroid like Sustanon 250 will come to surface and will be studied extensively.  Studies will likely reveal more adverse effects, as well as methods to reverse or prevent these effects, which will make the drug safer to use.  Down the road, anabolic steroids will most likely lose a lot of their negative reputation that they received in the 1980s-1990s as well.  I would not be the least bit surprised to see a version of Sustanon 250 branded by a large pharmaceutical company in the future that will possibly be used in the treatment of one of the conditions listed in this article.

  • in

    Guide to Trenbolone Acetate and FAQs

    trenbolone acetate

    At some point in our lives, we’ve all wanted to run faster, jump higher, launch our best friend like a shot put ball – all while having to beat women off of us like an Axe commercial. For those of you that have really tried to get into the best shape possible, you probably know that it’s easier said than done if you’re not using something like trenbolone acetate. Even when constantly changing up workout routines to be as challenging as possible, our bodies experience plateaus or genetic limitations that prevent us from continuing to build muscle and lose body fat. These limitations have increased the popularity of the anabolic steroid Trenbolone Acetate.

    You might ask why we have decided to do an article about Trenbolone Acetate on our health website… The first reason would have to be education. Regardless of potential side effects or the dangers of hormone supplementation, people are going to use steroids. It is our intention to educate these individuals so that they may avoid any negative effects that could occur if used incorrectly. There is currently a huge epidemic in the United States, and throughout other countries, referred to as Body Dysmorphic Disorder, where individuals become extremely unhappy with their physical looks. This disorder is responsible for thousands of suicides each year and proven to kill more people than steroids ever have. Steroids are sometimes prescribed to individuals with Body Dysmorphic Disorder in order to boost their self esteem. In recent years, there has been talk that trenbolone may be submitted for FDA approval for human use for its ability to help those with anemia and other hormone-related disorders.

    What is Trenbolone Acetate?

    Trenbolone Acetate (also known as “Tren” or “Trenabol”) is an anabolic steroid and a derivative of Nandrolone. The chemical was formulated in the 60s and was produced in the 70s by a company in England called Hoesct, and in France by Roussel . Trenbolone acetate was sold under the brand names Finajet and Finaject and was sold in the prescription drug market under those brand names for human use. However, due to a declared anabolic steroid “epidemic” declared by governments in the 1980s and early 1990s, production for human use was discontinued. It was around this time that bodybuilders began to experiment with Trenbolone acetate and began to see the amazing effects that the steroid could produce.

    What differentiates Trenbolone Acetate from Other Anabolic Steroids?

    Trenbolone Acetate has three very unique characteristics that set it apart from your average anabolic steroid. The first characteristic being that Trenbolone acetate has a very strong affinity for the androgen receptors which makes it an extremely potent steroid. Several sources say that the strong affinity that trenbolone acetate has for androgen receptors make it five times more potent that testosterone compounds. The second unique characteristic of Trenabol is the drugs amazing resistance to aromatization into estrogen. We’ll get into the benefits of this characteristic in a later question, but this makes it very preferential to some users due to the fact post-cycle therapy is not 100% necessary. Some anti-estrogen drugs can actually be more difficult to obtain than anabolic steroids. The last important characteristic that makes Trenbolone acetate a great anabolic steroid is the steroid’s resistance to metabolism by the body, making it a long-lasting steroid with a long half life.

    What is Trenbolone Acetate Used for?

    The primary use for trenbolone acetate today is for veterinary purposes. The drug is typically given to cattle to increase mineral absorption, to increase appetite in cows that aren’t eating as much as average livestock, and to improve muscle mass in cows that are experiencing atrophy or eating disorders.

    Am I old enough to Take Trenbolone Acetate?

    While we (nor the FDA) do not encourage the use of trenbolone acetate in any human individuals, it is strongly advised that nobody under the age of 25 take trenbolone, or any other anabolic steroid for that matter. Those under the age of 25 years old still have bodies and organs that are not finished developing. Messing with the body’s Endocrine system (hormones) is never a good idea unless it is malfunctioning. This is especially true in individuals that are still developing because hormonal changes will have impact on these developments.

    How is Trenbolone Acetate taken?

    Trenbolone acetate, like most steroids, is almost always injected into the body. Most steroids are also available in oral form, but generally aren’t very bioavailable when taken orally. Trenbolone is somewhat more bioavailable than most steroids, due to its resistance to metabolism by the body, but still requires a much higher dose when taken orally. Many report more side effects and more pronounced side effects when taking tablets vs. injecting the steroid. Due to additional passes through the liver, steroids can also be more toxic and may cause additional damage to the body when taking oral form rather than injecting. I know this is horrible news for those that are afraid of needles, but your options are to avoid steroids all together, get over your fears, or take on additional risks of damage to your internal organs. In the future, it is likely that steroids will be discovered or created in oral form and be safer/more bioavailable, but so far, there aren’t many of these drugs available. If injecting trenbolone acetate, ensure that shots are given away from any major veins or arteries. Sterilize the injection site thoroughly, and dispose of needles immediately after use. Never share needles with anybody!

    Is Trenbolone Acetate Legal?

    In most countries, trenbolone acetate is only legal for veterinary uses. The FDA currently does not have trenbolone acetate approved for human ingestion or treatment of any diseases or disorders. However, this does not stop bodybuilders and other from using it. In the United States, trenbolone acetate is currently a Schedule III Controlled Substance, meaning that harsh penalties may come with getting caught with the substance.

    Is Trenbolone Acetate Safe?

    This is a difficult question to answer. If steroids are used within certain doses, and if frequent blood tests are done to ensure hormone levels aren’t highly out of whack, it can be safe. But similar to the use of any type of drug, there will always be risk of side effects. However, trenbolone acetate may be safer than most steroids due to its resistance to typical metabolism by the body.  Whereas most steroids elevate liver enzymes, trenbolone seems to be expelled from the body in a different manner which means less stress on the liver and kidneys than most steroids.  We strongly recommend weighing the benefits vs. the risks before even considering using trenbolone acetate.

    Does Trenbolone Acetate have Side Effects?

    All drugs have potential side effects, so to no surprise, trenbolone acetate use may come with some unwanted side effects being that it is a very potent anabolic steroid. Some trenbolone acetate side effects include:

    Increased perspiration – It’s important to drink extra fluids with trenbolone acetate. Trenbolone users have been known to sweat much more during workouts and some even perspire at random times of the day, regardless of surrounding temperatures.
    Insomnia –While some steroid users encounter sleeping disturbances, those that have used trenbolone acetate say that it’s not only common, but can be very difficult to counter – even by taking sleeping medication with the steroid. Some studies suggest that trenbolone acetate may have a direct stimulating effect on the central nervous system. This profound side effect has lead to the term “trensomnia” by many in the anabolic steroid community.

    Gynecomastia Problems – Gynecomastia is the term used to describe men who develop large breasts, similar to that of a woman’s breasts. This is one of the most feared side effects of steroid users, and rightfully so, because the changes can sometimes be permanent. However, they’re usually able to be reversed to a large degree, if not fully. Unfortunately, even though trenbolone acetate has resistance to aromatizing into estrogen, it seems to increase the body’s sensitivity to estrogen (which is always present to some degree), and increases the release of prolactins from the Pituitary Gland. This increase in prolactin levels is thought to be responsible for the highly unwanted side effect of gynecomastia. Those that experience issues with gynecomastia during trenbolone cycles may want to use a dopamine agonist alongside trenbolone acetate. Dopamine/Prolactin-agonists have been known to decrease prolactin levels to a degree. A few examples of prolactin agonists are Bromocriptine, Pramipexole, or Cabergoline. Vitamin B6 has also shown to reduce prolactin in some studies as well.

    Decreased Libido & Erectile Dysfunction – Many users of trenbolone acetate experience difficulty getting or maintaining erections. This unwanted side effect is commonly referred to as ‘Tren-dick’ by bodybuilders and other in the steroid community. This side effect is thought to also be caused by increases in prolactin levels by the Pituitary Gland.

    Many users also experience a significant decline in libido or sexual desire. Some users will only experience these side effects to a degree. Many users may easily obtain erections and actually experience increases in sexual desire, but may not be able to achieve orgasms during sexual activity. Sexual changes are quite common, and to be experienced with trenbolone acetate. These effects usually subside after trenbolone use is discontinued. It is highly recommended that you keep some form of prolactin-agonist on-hand during trenbolone use in case you experience these issues.

    Increases in Aggressive Behavior – Like with any androgen, trenbolone may increase aggression and irritability in individuals. These side effects are almost entirely dose-dependent. Not everybody reacts to drugs in the same manner. This is especially true for those altering hormones. However, those prone to aggression or those that have experienced anger issues in the past may want to start off with a low dose of trenbolone acetate until they are aware of how it may affect them, or trenbolone acetate.

    Will Trenbolone Acetate Interact with Any of My Current Medications?

    Because trenbolone acetate has not had many human studies conducted, there is not much information available for drug interactions. It is highly recommended that you speak with your primary care physician to discuss potential adverse effects or interactions with other drugs that you may be taking. There are some obvious drugs that you should avoid with any steroid use including testosterone (and other steroid) containing drugs such as Androgel, Testim, etc. Trenbolone acetate may also interact negatively with medications used to treat hypertension or hypotension such as Clonidine, Toprol, Diovan, etc. Medications used to treat heart conditions are also likely to interact with trenbolone acetate. Some of these medications include Warfarin and Heparin.

    Does Trenbolone Acetate Aromatize?

    Trenbolone acetate does not aromatize into estrogen. This is good news for some, but this can also cause other issues since the body relies on balance of hormones to operate at normal function. Estrogen levels may actually fall to low levels with the high amount of androgenic activity and lack of aromatization. Low levels of estrogen may cause joint inflammation/problems, mood changes, and loss of libido.

    How long is Trenbolone Acetate Usually Taken?

    The most common cycle for trenbolone acetate is 12 weeks. However, many users of trenbolone acetate cycles of 8 weeks have also shown to be effective for gaining muscle and reducing body fat. It is strongly recommended to use trenbolone acetate for a maximum of 12 weeks.

    Do I need to Cycle Trenbolone Acetate?

    Yes. All steroids should be cycled in order to prevent the body from completely shutting down production of certain hormones such as testosterone. Cycles also prevent the body from building up too many hormones that can cause massive damage to the body. A trenbolone acetate cycle of 8-12 weeks is long enough to achieve desirable effects without experiencing bothersome side effects.

    What is a Typical Dose of Trenbolone Acetate?

    Trenbolone is typically taken every other day in dose ranges of 35mg – 150mg and commonly taken with testosterone or Dianabol since Tren suppresses testosterone production. The most common dose of trenbolone acetate is 75mg every other day. Those that have never taken steroids should start with a lower trenbolone acetate dosage of 35mg – 50mg every 48 hours. More experienced users may want to use higher doses of 75mg – 100mg. While some of the more experienced users of steroids may take doses of up to 150mg every other day, this high of a dose is not recommended because of excessive central nervous system stimulation and the high risk of side effects that users may encounter.

    What Results Should I Expect with Trenbolone Acetate Use?

    Trenbolone acetate is well known for its ability to quickly build muscle and increase strength ability. These effects are caused by the drug’s ability to increase nitrogen retention, synthesize proteins, and rapidly repair cells. Many users also experience great cutting abilities (or the ability to rapidly reduce body fat without losing muscle fiber). It is important to increase the amount of food that you typically eat during steroid use to achieve desired results.

    trenbolone

    Summary

    While we do not recommend using trenbolone acetate due to its limited research in humans, we hope that this information will help educate you should you decide to use it anyways. Trenbolone can produce extremely impressive muscle building and fat shedding results if used properly. While your doctor will strongly advise against the use of trenbolone acetate, it is wise to discuss your use with him before using the drug. Doctors have a duty to discourage steroid use, but most will monitor your hormone levels through blood tests to help ensure safety if you ask them to.

  • in , ,

    Best Testosterone Booster for Low Testosterone in Men

    I may be the only person, but when I hear the term “testosterone booster”, I immediately see an image of either a guy sticking himself in the rear with a needle or a roid-raged muscled-up monster with veins bulging out of his forehead that’s about ready to slap his wife silly.  The last few decades, the testosterone hormone has generally been associated with steroid use and has generally received quite a bad reputation due to the unfairness it has caused in athletic sports, as well as the negative health effects that many experience that have abused anabolic steroids.  However, in the last five to ten years, more people now associate testosterone in a more positive manner than the previous negative connotation because (thanks to marketing) we now know that a huge amount of men suffer from problems caused by low testosterone levels.  It is now known that testosterone is single-handedly one of the most important hormones in men and that it affects such a huge amount of factors in our overall health and well being.  More evidence is also suggesting that a large percentage of men are becoming deficient in testosterone-not just experiencing declining levels of testosterone (which is part of the common aging process), but experiencing faster than normal declines in their testosterone levels. This has sparked a lot of interest in tons of scientific and health communities which has created a huge market for and a race to find the best testosterone booster to safely raise testosterone levels to a natural or healthy level.

    In this article, we’ll discuss some of the basics of testosterone, factors that affect testosterone levels, some of the most important ingredients that have proven to increase testosterone in men, as well as some of our favorite picks for the best testosterone booster (stacked & branded supplement versions).  My hope is that this information will steer you in the right direction as you start shopping for a solution and that it may save you money, time, and the frustration that is often occured after some blindly pick testosterone pills that are nothing but snake oil.

    Testosterone and its Effects

    Testosterone is a hormone that is secreted from the testicles (and also adrenal glands in small amounts).  It is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics, sexual drive, sperm production, muscle mass, bone mass, red blood cell production, and can even affect mental health in men.  Testosterone is also produced in the ovaries by women, and then released into the bloodstream.  However, testosterone is produced in much smaller amounts in women than men (men generally have about 8 times as much testosterone as women.)

    It is estimated that testosterone levels drop at approximately 1% per year after a male reaches the age of 30.  Testosterone levels may decrease more drastically in men that are over the age of 60 years old.  In the past, it was thought that testosterone levels decrease largely because of the reproductive axis (the need for sperm production becomes less needed in the older male).  There are also many other factors that are thought to be responsible for the decline of testosterone in men such as obesity, decline in liver and kidney function, the use of certain medications, and the use of many unknown anti-androgen objects (that we are finding out by the day may cause us harm).  However, there is also a large percentage of older men that have perfect levels of testosterone as well which suggests that there are other unknown factors responsible for the decline of testosterone in aging men.  In recent years, many doctors and scientists have begun to think that testosterone decline with aging isn’t much of a natural phenomenon as was once though  Testosterone continues to be a widely studied hormone in the subject of anti-aging as well.

    Testosterone and Balance

    As I mentioned earlier, the negative association with the testosterone hormone comes mainly from men abusing testosterone and other anabolic steroids to increase their athletic performance or overall muscle mass.  A large percentage of these abusers inject themselves with anywhere from 10 to 100 times the amount of testosterone than the body needs.  So it’s no wonder why these individuals often experience negative health effects or a total and permanent loss of testosterone production.

    Some of the most common negative health effects associated with testosterone abuse include an increased risk of heart attack or stroke, enlargement of the heart’s ventricle, high blood pressure, liver damage, male pattern baldness, testicular atrophy, infertility, and impotence.  In fact, many studies show that it is evident that testosterone and steroid abuse lead to a high frequency of early deaths in abusers.

    However, a deficiency in testosterone can be equally as damaging to some.  Negative health effects that are often associated with low testosterone levels include an increased risk of infertility and erectile dysfunction, loss of sex drive, osteoarthritis, difficulty keeping muscle mass, rapid weight gain/obesity, constant fatigue, loss of motivation, depression, and even cognitive decline.

    To make things more difficult, testosterone works in a similar manner to neurotransmitters in that a certain amount is available by the body for use.  However, once our body determines that we’ve had enough, the chemical is temporarily disabled until it is needed again.  Our bodies disable testosterone by emitting a glycoprotein called Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) that binds to the free testosterone molecule causing it to be unable to bind to anything useful.   Men also convert excess testosterone into the female sex hormone, estrogen.  This is why many bodybuilders that abuse steroids take estrogen blockers after cycling steroids, because if they did not, all of their muscle gains would be lost when estrogen takes over their bodies.  Also, when foreign substances are introduced into the body that increase testosterone, the testicles slow their production since there is not a need to produce the hormone.  This is why testicles are known to shrink or atrophy with steroid use.  After discontinuation of the foreign substance, it takes the body a significant amount of time to re-adapt and to start producing these hormones again.  If steroids are used for too long or in too high of dose, it’s possible that the testicles may stop producing testosterone all together.

    So, it’s obvious that no matter what goals you’re trying to achieve by boosting your testosterone levels, it isn’t very wise to pick up a needle full of testosterone and stick it in your buttocks.  Like most things, moderation is key to the optimal success – especially when dealing with human hormones.  Some factors like stress, diet, and certain infections have been known to decrease testosterone in men temporarily.  And so, it may not be wise to rush to the doctor asking for a prescription drug either because many doctors are unable to accurately determine just how much your body is producing testosterone while supplementing with it.  For most men that are prescribed testosterone gels, injections, or testosterone replacement therapy, they’re on it for the rest of their lives. For this reason, I recommend trying a testosterone booster if you’re experiencing mild health issues that you believe to be caused by low testosterone levels.  Testosterone boosters are safe alternatives to drugs, are affordable, and generally only increase your testosterone levels marginally, compared to prescription drugs or steroids.  Most men that use testosterone boosters notice nothing but benefits because they naturally assist the body to create the needed amount of testosterone vs throwing your entire Endocrine system out of whack.  Most of the best testosterone increasing supplements also have a wide variety of other benefits to the body (that are unrelated to male libido or athletic performance) as well.

    What is the Best Testosterone Booster?

    With all of the marketing that we’re exposed to on a daily basis, the testosterone supplement industry has boomed.  There are thousands of products available today with all types of different ingredients – many that are extremely useful, and many that have no chance of ever becoming close to the best testosterone booster because they lack the scientific basis to provide any benefits whatsoever.  There are also many supplements out there that have been thought to work, due to scientific evidence that showed promising effects, but are no longer considered effective at boosting testosterone because of flawed studies or new conflicting scientific evidence.

    There are two types of testosterone supplements that we’ll be discussing.  First, are the best testosterone booster individual ingredients that are currently the most promising in delivering increased amounts of testosterone safely and then I’ll list and discuss a few of my top-picks for the best branded testosterone booster.  These branded testosterone supplements are generally stacks of multiple ingredients that have shown to aid in testosterone production.  These products are generally available in health supplement stores and health/bodybuilding websites throughout the internet.  Depending on the amount of time you have to achieve your desired results, and your budget, you may want to try the individual ingredients or a branded supplement with multiple ingredients.  Trying individual ingredients, you will be able to pinpoint exactly what works for you and what doesn’t.  These individual ingredients are generally much cheaper than branded supplements and you can easily control the dosage.  However, if you’ve got the money for them, stacked testosterone boosters may be the better option for you if you’re looking for quick results that contain a variety of well-studied ingredients.  Do plenty of research on the ingredients and make sure that they contain an effective amount of the ingredients that you’re looking for.  Many brands have been known to sneak only a little bit of the effective ingredients in to make it cost effective, but to show the ingredient listed in their product.

    Best Testosterone Boosting Ingredients

    D-Aspartic Acid

    An amino acid regulator of testosterone synthesis has showed to be a very safe and effective testosterone booster.  Testosterone increases of 30-60% were seen in men taking the supplement for short periods, but there is some evidence that suggests that D-Aspartic acid may need to be cycled (or taken for short periods of time, while taking time off of supplementation to continue receiving beneficial effects).  D-AA has also shown to increase the amount of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) in men and reduces sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) which, in turn, increases the amount of free testosterone that is available to the body for use.  Studies have also showed that the supplement is able to increase fertility in men.  One study showed an increase from 0% to 26.6% of men conceiving during use of supplementation.

    Diindolylmethane

    This molecule is found in Cruciferous vegetables such as collard greens, kale, and broccoli.  It acts as a potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, is currently used to combat certain hormone-induced cancers, and has also shown to be effective at metabolizing the negative effects of some estrogen metabolites, in addition to other benefits.  As I briefly mentioned in the last section, excessive testosterone usually leads to conversion of estrogen in men’s bodies.  So, in general, as a man’s testosterone level is increased, estrogen will be increased as well.  Not all estrogen is bad, though.  2-hydroxyl & 2-methoxy estrogen metabolites actually help burn fat and fight off some types of cancer, while 16-hydroxyl estrogen metabolites have shown to decrease energy levels, increase mood swings, decrease libido, etc.  DIM works to increase levels of the “good” estrogen metabolites, while metabolizing the “bad”.  It seems to offer nothing but positive effects in those wishing to build muscle, increase energy levels, reduce fat, or increase sex drive.

    Boron

    The element, Boron, has been linked to everything from strong bone production, to muscle production, to coordination, and cognitive function.  Less than .0001% of the Earth’s crust is Boron.  However, it remains to be vital to healthy human life.  Many dietitians and nutritionists suspect that “power farming” (that is, the practice of repeatedly using the same agricultural locations/soil to grow massive crops) may be causing us to be purchasing fruits and vegetables that are extremely low in vitamins and minerals.  Boron seems to be an important mineral that is lost in the cycling of repeated crop growth.  Many speculate that this could have a significant impact on men’s testosterone levels.  Boron is thought to decrease the amount of sex hormone-binding globulin which leads to an increase of free testosterone levels.  One study showed that boron increased the amount of free testosterone in men by 28%. Boron is also suspected to reduce the overall amount of estrodial in the body as well.

    Magnesium & Zinc

    I’ve lumped these two test boosters together because their effects on testosterone are very similar.  Similar to boron, a deficiency in these minerals can directly affect testosterone levels in a negative manner.  Some studies suggest that over 70% of adults in the United States are deficient in magnesium.  Zinc deficiencies are more common in the elderly, with over 40% being deficient.  Diet and power-farming are thought to be a large contributor to these deficiencies.  Magnesium can actually evaporate from the body through sweat, which may cause many hardcore gym rats to lose more magnesium than they’re aware of.

    Several studies show that magnesium may increase the bio-availability of testosterone.  Magnesium seems to have a stronger affinity to testosterone than sex hormone binding globulin, (or rather, testosterone prefers to bind to magnesium than the neutralizing SHBG) which increases the effectiveness of your body’s current testosterone.  The increase of free testosterone and increased bioavailability make magnesium extremely effective in boosting testosterone in men.  However, men that are already consuming sufficient amounts of magnesium may not receive many added benefits if supplementing magnesium.

    Those who are deficient in zinc have shown to have altered androgen receptors which may eliminate the effects of good testosterone that’s available in the body.  Some studies have shown zinc to increase the amount of leuteinizing hormone in men.  LH is a hormone that plays a crucial role in testosterone production.  Zinc has also shown to act as a fairly potent aromatase inhibitor which helps block testosterone from converting into estrogen.  But one again, those that have healthy zinc levels may not receive a ton of benefits from supplementing with zinc.

    Vitamin D

    This essential vitamin, while technically being a hormone, is responsible for over 1,000 functions in the human body and is essential to life.  In addition to aiding in development and maintenance of strong bone structure, it acts as a steroid hormone and lowers sex hormone-binding globulin as well.  Studies show that men who were deficient in vitamin D, that supplemented the vitamin, has free testosterone increases above 25%.  A significant amount of our vitamin D comes from a chemical interaction between cholesterol in our skin and sunlight (UVB rays).  Those that do not receive hardly any sun exposure are more likely to be deficient in Vitamin D.

    Best Brand Testosterone Boosters

    GENIUS TEST (Genius Brands)

    This product is Amazon’s best testosterone booster for a reason.  It’s loaded with high-quality Ashwaghanda (an adaptogen herb that has shown to relieve stress and increase T-levels), Shilajit Extract (loaded with important minerals), DIM, and Biotin.

    This product also has Tongkat Ali (Longjack) & Fenugreek, two supplements that we have not yet discussed, but both are definitely worthy of mentioning.  Tongkat Ali is a plant extract that has been used for centuries as an aphrodisiac.  Tongkat Ali is believed to work by allowing the hypothalamus and pituitary glands (which play crucial roles in testosterone production) to allow higher testosterone concentrations before signaling cells that counter the free testosterone.  Fenugreek is also a plant extract that has proven to be effective in enhancing men’s libido and supporting healthy testosterone levels.  There are several studies that conflict evidence that Fenugreek actually increases testosterone levels, but there are many independent studies that suggest that is more than slightly effective.  There are also many positive studies that show that Fenugreek increases sperm count and libido.

    The only downfall to this testosterone boosting supplement is the high price tag that comes with it.  However, you’re not going to find high-quality and effective ingredients for nothing.

    EVERLASTING T (Nutripharm)

    While some testosterone boosters are better for muscle and strength gain, some are better for an energy boost and vitality, and some are best for sex drive/contraception, this is a great supplement that is likely to support all of men’s needs that are relating to low T.  Everlasting T has most of the individual ingredients that we discussed above such as D-Aspartic Acid, magnesium, zinc, and Longjack.  It also has many other ingredients that have shown to increase testosterone and that support the male sexual system like Cissus Quadrangulus, Maca Root, Horny Goat Weed, Mucuna Pruiens, Resverotrol.  This product also contains BioPerine, or black pepper extract, which is well known for helping the body absorb nutrients and herbal extracts.

    This product also contains Tribulus Terrestris, which we have not yet discussed.  I have not listed Tribulus as one of the top testosterone boosting supplements, because I have not seen much scientific evidence that supports the claims that it increases testosterone.  There are several old studies that did suggest this, but they were seriously flawed or have been contradicted by more recent studies.  However, Tribulus still remains to be the #1 top selling testosterone increasing ingredient in supplements.  I also know several bodybuilders who swear by Tribulus.  One thing’s for sure, though, and that is that it is proven safe and definitely can’t hurt to throw into the mix.

    Nutripharm is a pretty big supplement company that is known to have high-quality ingredients.  The wide variety of ingredients in this supplement that are known to support high levels of testosterone in men and the mid-priced price tag, this product easily makes it a top-pick for us.

    EVER VITALITY (Universal Body Labs)

    Ever Vitality is one of our top picks for those without a large budget and for those that don’t want to risk spending too much on a product that may not benefit them.  Ever Vitality contains many of the basic testosterone boosters such as Zinc, Tribulus, Fenugreek, Tongkat Ali, Maca powder, and Horny Goat Weed.  It also contains a low dose of Panex Ginseng and caffeine, both which are well known for increasing energy levels and boosting mood.  While Ever Vitality’s ingredients aren’t in high doses, they have enough of each ingredient to produce at least mild effects/benefits in those with low testosterone if they’re respondents to the supplements effects.

     

    Best Testosterone Booster That is Not a Supplement

    Once you’ve found the best testosterone booster for you, you’ll have quite the edge over most men by being able to capture an additional 20% + jump in testosterone just by eating a capsule or two. However, your work isn’t completely over then.  Nobody ever said that boosting T-levels was going to be as simple as that.  I’ll bet you’ve already heard this before, but quite possibly the best ways to boost testosterone levels are sleep, a good diet, and exercise.

    Testosterone levels follow our circadium rythym for the most part.  As we fall into a deep sleep, testosterone starts working it’s magic to get our testes whipping up a batch of high-quality sperm (never know when it could come in handy) and our T-levels peak around the time we wake up (after REM sleep).  Throughout the day, testosterone levels dwindle away and then the cycle is repeated.  There are studies that show that men who were able to get 8 hours of sleep vs. 4 hours of sleep, had almost twice the amount of testosterone in their bloodstream.  The more you sleep, the more testosterone your body pumps out.  If you’ve made a habit out of sleep problems, that could possibly be the greatest factor impacting your testosterone and energy levels.

    If you’re trying to increase your testosterone levels, it’s important to eat plenty of carbohydrates, proteins, and good fats.  However, it’s also equally important to exercise regularly or else the change in your diet is likely to just clump into additional fat and make your testosterone levels worse.

    When it comes to hitting the gym, endurance and resistance training have been known to increase testosterone levels, but not near as much as some challenging strength training and power exercises.  Shooting for high intensity and low reps, while tricking your body’s typical patters is great for increasing testosterone.  Eat right, exercise hard, take a testosterone booster, and you’re bound to get the results that you’re looking for!

    It also wouldn’t hurt to ask the doctor to test your hormone levels while you’re in for your routine visit.  Most people claim that they can actually feel and notice the effects of testosterone raising supplements, but it is possible that even with the raised levels of testosterone, you may still be below normal levels and not at an optimum level.

     

  • in ,

    Finding the Best Nootropics for YOU!

    best-nootropics

    We’ve all waited an hour in a doctor’s office (which seems much longer when you’re sick), just to speak with them for two minutes.  Then, we pay a huge bill on our way out – just for a prescription of a few pills (which aren’t always effective).  The reason we go through this torturous process is because there are thousands of different drugs and we need doctors to decide which drug is best for us and which poses the least amount of risk for us to take.  Since nootropics have gained a lot of popularity in the last decade, many more smartdrugs are becoming well-known for their benefits and have created quite a broad selection.  However, there isn’t one single nootropics that provides benefits for everybody’s needs.  In this article, we’ll discuss different factors to consider and different cognitive issues that should help you choose the best nootropics for you and your personal needs.

    What are Nootropics?

    It seems that many websites out there are mistranslating the actual meaning of nootropics these days.   Traditionally, the term nootropics has meant “a drug or supplement taken to enhance memory or cognitive function in the brain”.  Several scientists throughout the past have gone on further to identify other characteristics used to classify nootropics, such as safety or low risk of adverse side effects.  Many internet marketers use the nootropics niche, however, to continue to push general supplements under the label “nootropics” that do not pertain to the mind.

    While there are many websites marketing a wide variety of nootropics that may not be entirely useful to the mind, there are still hundreds, if not thousands of drugs and supplements out there that have cognitive benefits and that do not pose the threat of negative side effects.  There are many different aspects to the brain that affect its overall being such as memory, concentration/focus, motivation, anxiety, and depression.  All of these aspects of the brain work in a perfect symphony when operating at peak performance.  If one area of cognition is suffering, it is often likely to cause other areas to suffer somewhat as well.  The best starting place, when looking for possible nootropic treatments, is to start with the biggest problem.  Sometimes, by solving your biggest issues, you will find that other areas that are negatively impacted may start to rebound with the main cause.

    cognitive-issues

    Factors to consider when choosing the best nootropics for you

    Like most drugs and supplements, there is no “one drug fits all” drug that will solve all of your cognitive issues.  Some smart drugs are better at improving your memory, while some are able to alleviate anxiety and depression which may be causing distraction or creating brain fog. When choosing which nootropics you’d like to give a try, your fist step should be asking yourself what you would like to achieve by supplementing with nootropics.  Are you having issues with your short-term memory; remembering small, but important tasks throughout the day?  Do you wake up with brain fog in the morning and have difficulty focusing on important tasks until late in the day?  Do you simply want to improve your already nearly-perfect memory so that you can be even more knowledgeable? These are some common reasons that nootropics are taken and most are able to achieve their needs, to some degree, with nootropics use.

    After determining goals that you would like to accomplish with the use of nootropics, you may want to establish some sort of scorecard to track your progress with the use of your smart drug.  The benefits of many nootropics often cannot be felt.  Instead, their benefits are usually noticed through tests or by comparing to a baseline.  An example would be a nootropic that increases memory performance.  Since you cannot feel your memory, you may not notice the impact of the nootropic, but may notice that you’re remembering things that you easily forget.  You may also start scoring better on academic tests due to better memory retrieval.  Many nootropics experimenters will conduct a baseline test to determine their performance without nootropics use.  Then, they will continue to take the same, or a similar, type of test during their use to see if the drug is actually providing them with a benefit.

    Once you determine your goals and create a way to measure benefits, it’s important to do plenty of research on the different nootropics that are available because they all work in different ways.  Choosing a nootropic that isn’t targeted to your specific needs could potentially worsen your problems rather than make them better.  It’s important to read about the all of the potential benefits, as well as all of the potential negative side effects and drug interactions with other supplements, smart drugs, or medications that you may be taking.

    Look into the amount of research that has been done on each nootropic.  There are still many drugs out there that are being marketed for sale that have barely had any research conducted on their safety, let alone efficiency.  Most studies are published and available to read, in detail, by the public.  Internet forums can also be a good form of research.  Users often share their experiences with nootropics experimentation/use and express the good as well as bad effects that they’ve experienced.

    Most nootropics that are unregulated and sold in the United States are generally recognized as safe for consumption.  Most are also safe enough to be consumed with other nootropics without any negative side effects.  In fact, most nootropics users suggest that taking certain combinations of nootropics can actually work synergistically with each other to potentiate the effects of each other for greater benefits.

    Consider your budget when deciding which nootropics may be best for you.  While most nootropics are very affordable, there are also many brand name nootropics that have a very high retail price of almost $100 for just a month’s worth of use.  There are many suppliers out there that sell nootropics in bulk powders.  It can sometimes be difficult to gauge exact doses of a substance when purchased in bulk powder, but many experienced nootropics users typically buy an encapsulating kit or a digital scale to weight out exact measurements.  Many nootropics users will stack multiple nootropics to make a nootropic cocktail that fits their exact needs.  Then, they throw the contents into capsules for easy dosing/consumption.

    Lastly, it’s important to investigate the different nootropics suppliers out there.  The majority of nootropic suppliers on the internet import their ingredients from other countries.  Many of them conduct quality assurance studies to verify that the drug in question is nearly pure.  They will also do testing for harmful chemicals and heavy metals.  Other suppliers may just trust their suppliers in other countries, taking their word for the purity, and immediately putting it up for sell on the internet.  It is easy for factories in other countries to mistranslate a customer’s needs, so it may be wise to ask the supplier to see a certificate of analysis on the batch of the product before purchasing.  It is also wise to read reviews on the internet to make sure a supplier is legit and that they’re supplying top-quality nootropics.

    Best Nootropics for Memory

    Neurotransmitters play a huge role in the memory process.  Especially acetylcholine which is responsible for signaling brain cells to communicate with each other.  Many Alzheimer’s disease studies have concluded that decreased acetylcholine levels may play a pretty big role in the progression of the horrible disease.  Other neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin most likely have important roles in processes for memory storage and retrieval as well.  Below are some of our favorite choices for the best nootropics for memory:

    Bacopa Monnieri — Bacopa is an “adaptogen” herbal supplement that multiple studies have shown to increase memory in both healthy individuals as well as those experiencing cognitive decline. Several studies also suggest that it may be beneficial for people that experience acute forgetfulness (ex: where you put your car keys). However, Bacopa Monnieri may take up to 12 weeks of use to reach the desired effects. While Bacopa has shown to be a great nootropic supplement for memory, it tastes terrible so buying this supplement in the capsule form is highly recommended.

    Bacopa is thought to enhance memory formations by increasing expression of the serotonin transporter and by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase.  The effects on the serotonin system likely influence the acetylcholine system as well.  Bacopa has also shown to increase NGF (Neural growth factor) in areas of the brain that are responsible for memory formations.  NGF encourages neurons to grow which may increase the amount of possible synaptic interactions in your brain.

    Vinpocetine — In addition to antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, and antidepressant effects, Vinpocetine has shown to increase blood flow to the brain without altering intracranial pressure systematically. It is also thought to improve memory processes by depleting dopamine storage levels inside the cell, thereby inhibiting dopamine uptake and by altering signaling of AMPA and NMDA receptors which could positively impact glutimate levels.

    Huperzine A — Huperzine A is a naturally-occurring alkaloid that is currently being studied as a possible treatment for Alzheimer’s and has long been reported by users as having the ability to increase cognitive function (especially with increases in memory functions).

    Huperzine A is a reversible acetylcholinerase inhibitor and also acts as an NMDA receptor antagonist.  Acetylcholinerase is an enzyme that is produced by the body that breaks down acetylcholine in the brain.  Huperzine may impact memory function by preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine in the brain.

    Huperzine A also has also shown to work as a neuroprotective agent against agents like glutamate, h2o2, or beta-amyloid pigmentation.   The nootropics may also aid in neurogenesis (growth/development of nervous tissues) in hippocampal neural stem cells.

    Alpha-GPC — As stated above, choline is thought to play a very important part in memory development/function. Alpha-GPC (a-GPC) is a choline-containing compound that is found in foods with high amounts of choline sources.  Alpha-GPC not only improves memory function, but has also shown to increase power output in athletes.  Many nootropics users that take racetams (Piracetam, Aniracetam, etc.) add alpha-GPC to their stack because racetams are believed to increase choline consumption.  By supplementing alpha-GPC, they are ensuring that their brain has significant choline levels to support memory function and increased choline consumption caused by the racetam drugs.

     

    Best Nootropics for Concentration

    Concentration is a key-player in general cognitive enhancement.  The best nootropics for studying are the nootropics that increase your ability to concentrate.  Whether you realize it or not, our brains are constantly filtering everything that our eyes see.  You may have seen spy movies where a spy walks into a room and can tell the other person in the room 10 things that they could use to kill the person with.  This type of training is actually taught by the CIA.  Parts of your brain do actually encounter everything in our vision; however, the brain is forced to choose what is important enough for your consciousness and what not to pay attention to.  If your brain was to take in all of the data/information that it encounters, it would become overwhelmed and you would likely have a grand mal seizure that led to your death.  That may sound pretty gruesome, but it is true.

    You’ve probably heard of the body’s fight-or-flight (stress) response.  This works in the same manner – the Thalamus determines foreign objects that pose a threat.  The body then releases neurotransmitters such as dopamine and epinephrine to tag importance to the subject, bringing it to consciousness (or actual thought).  For this reason, nootropics that elevate dopamine and epinephrine, or that stimulate synaptic transmission, often increase the ability to concentrate.

    Pramiracetam — Pramiracetam, a derivative of the famous nootropic Piracetam, is among the best nootropics for optimal concentration and prolonged focus. This chemical compound shares pretty much all of the benefits that piracetam has to offer, and more.  Pramiracetam is fat-soluble vs. water-soluble which gives it a very long half-life of up to 6 hours and is said to be 5 to 30 times more potent than piracetam.

    Caffeine & L-theanine — Caffeine is, by far, the most well-known and most used nootropic that’s available today.  Some studies suggest that up to 90% of American adults currently use caffeine daily for increased concentration, alertness, and focus as well as for a boost in their mood/well-being.  However, caffeine also comes with a list of unwanted side effects such as an increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, irritability, and jitters.  For concentration purposes, we highly recommend taking L-theanine in combination with caffeine.  Not only does L-theanine help negate the unwanted side effects of caffeine, but its positive nootropic effects act synergistically with caffeine to potentiate the benefits of both nootropics.

    L-theanine is an amino acid that is commonly found in green teas.  Studies show that it has anti-anxiolytic properties (helps reduce anxiety) and may also promote alpha brain waves which are known to exist when we are in a relaxed state of mind with our brains operating at peak performance.  This nootropic combination is one of the most common and popular nootropic stacks among those that use smart drugs and is also one of the most studied combinations as well.  Many popular branded nootropic supplements also contain this combination.

    Sulbutiamine — Sulbutiamine is a modified form of thiamine (Vitamin B1) which is essential for many metabolic processes in the body and brain. When you think about having to cram for a test, you have to be able to focus for very long periods of time.  Long-term concentration can be exhausting as it requires serious mental endurance and a full load of neurotransmitters to support the huge amount of synaptic transmissions that occur.  Sulbutiamine aids in the mental endurance needed by promoting cellular energy in the brain, thereby increasing the overall output of the brain and giving you the energy needed for optimal concentration.  Sulbutiamine also affects acetylcholine, glutamate, and dopamine neurotransmitters, all of which play an impact on memory, concentration, and focus.

     

    Best Nootropics for Motivation

    At some point in our lives, we all experience problems with motivation.  Whether your challenges are with education, employment, or standard everyday tasks, it’s pretty easy to get burned out when you experience repetition.  Factors such as diet, exercise, or depression can also affect our need to get our butts in gear to accomplish goals or less than exciting tasks.  The important factors in the brain that are thought to be responsible for motivation are the neurotransmitter dopamine and the mesolimbic pathway.  The mesolimbic pathway is the path in which our brains are rewarded for accomplishing tasks.  Studies suggest that dopamine is not only the main neurotransmitter that gives us happiness (or a reward) when we accomplish something, but also suggest that dopamine is associated with consequences for poor actions as well.  Many studies have shown that there is a clear correlation between lack of motivation and low dopamine levels.  With these considerations in mind and from our personal experiences, we have listed some of the best nootropics for increased motivation below:

    Adrafinil — Adrafinil is a personal favorite and one of the most popular choices among other nootropics users as well due to its high potency and obvious benefits. As mentioned earlier in this article, most nootropics aren’t easily felt like most psychotropic drugs, but adrafinil is a nootropic that actually can be felt.  It really seems to give you a kick in the butt when you’re slacking.

    Adrafinil is a precursor to modafinil (or Provigil), meaning that it converts to modafinil after ingestion. Modafinil is only available by prescription in the United States, but Adrafinil is not a controlled substance and is available by many suppliers on the internet.  Adrafinil is a stimulant, but does not work like most stimulant drugs and does not cause hyperactivity.  Adrafinil, like modafinil are both used to promote wakefulness.  In fact, it’s most commonly prescribed to those with narcolepsy, jet lag, or long work shifts (example: doctors pulling double shifts in the ER that need to remain alert and motivated to save lives).

    Several studies also suggest that adrafinil may increase memory performance as well.  Adrafinil affects the brain’s adrenergic system (adrenaline) and the body’s catecholamine hormone levels.  Unlike most central nervous system stimulants, it does not produce anxiety effects and is less likely to cause other unwanted side effects such as irritability, jitters, or a crash when effects of the drug wear off.  The drug has a very long half-life and can produce extra energy, motivation, and wakefulness for up to 13 hours.  It is recommended to dose early in the morning and no later due to the long half-life of the drug.

    Phenylpiracetam — Phenylpiracetam is another member of the racetam drug family, which are all known to provide a long list of cognitive benefits. Phenylpiracetam’s effects seem to be one of the most noticeable of the racetam family.  The drug decreases anxiety/stress while also providing very stimulating effects.  Phenylpiracetam is also a great mood booster and positively affects dopamine levels/transmission which makes it a great pick for those experiencing issues with motivation.  This drug is perfect for students that are having issues with motivation to study because it not only helps you get started on the task, but also helps you retain the information and think in a creative manner.

    Selegiline — Selegiline (also known as Deprenyl or Ensam, in transdermal patch form) is a very interesting smart drug. This drug is being studied in a wide variety of studies today that range from possible treatment for those with depression to possible life-extension abilities in humans.  Selegiline is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor.  Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme that breaks down many of our beneficial neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.  There are many studies coming out that show that the majority of humans may be deficient in at least one of these important neurotransmitters.  For this reason, selegiline is also being studied for life extension purposes.  One study conducted on rats even showed selegiline to have almost doubled the lifespan of rats.  It is thought that the increased levels of dopamine in the latter stages of life may help extend life because dopamine levels reduce in the brain as we age.

    Deprenyl/selegiline should be used with caution, however.  Certain foods and drinks may interact with the medication to cause dangerous spikes in blood pressure.  For this reason, selegiline is not as easily available for purchase as other nootropics, but is still somewhat unregulated in the United States and available to buy online.  The transdermal patch (branded as Ensam) was created to reduce these possible dangerous interactions which may make it a safer version of the drug.  Please do plenty of research on this drug if you are considering using for motivational purposes!

    Best Nootropics for Anxiety

    Most people probably do not think of anxiety as a factor that would affect our cognitive abilities, but more and more research is revealing the negative effects that anxiety may have on our cognition.  Anxiety is a form of stress that causes feelings of worry, unease, restlessness, or helplessness, particularly pertaining to an event with an uncertain outcome.

    We all experience anxiety at times – some more often than others and some may experience anxiety to a higher degree than others.  However, frequent anxiety, whether we realize it or not, can interfere with almost every aspect of cognition including memory, concentration, motivation, etc.  Chronic anxiety can take a toll on our minds and bodies and can even lead to depression.  As we mentioned earlier in this article, alpha-brain waves are typically emitted when your brain is in a relaxed state and operating at peak performance.  Anxiety is well-known to interfere with this type of mindset that allows alpha brain waves from occurring.

    Many psychologists today recognize two forms of Attention-Deficit Disorder.  One form of this disorder is believed to be caused by neurotransmitter imbalances in the brain.  The other form is believed to be caused by stress, anxiety, or depression.  There have been recent FDA approvals for antidepressant drugs and blood pressure medications to be used as treatments for the latter form of ADD.  Below are a few nootropics that can help reduce anxiety and stress so that you’re able to focus on the necessary subject at hand:

    Aniracetam — Aniracetam is another popular member of the racetam family of smart drugs.  Aniracetam is one of the three most purchased racetam drugs.  Aniracetam also provides the long list of benefits that piracetam offers, but also seems to have the most pronounced anti-anxiolytic effects of all racetam drugs.  It is also frequently reported to boost feelings of well-being as well.  Aniracetam is thought to reduce feelings of anxiety through mixed dopaminergic, cholinergic, and serotonergic mechanisms.

    There are also many reports that aniracetam helps reduce depression.  Several studies have been conducted on mice for the efficiacy of its antidepressant effects, but no official studies on humans have been conducted.  The study conducted on mice did show that aniracetam significantly reduced anxiety in adult, but did not show significant results in the young mice.

    Picamillon — Picamillon is a synthetic chemical compound containing niacin (vitamin B5) and GABA.  The combination of the two chemicals allows GABA to easily cross the blood-brain barrier, delivering more GABA to the brain than a standard oral dose of GABA would allow.

    Human brains are stimulated by the neurotransmitter, glutamate.  GABA works in the opposite effect to counter glutamate and depress neurological transmissions.  By increasing GABA levels, picamillon is able to help reduce the overstimulation of the brain.  Benzodiazepines, the drugs that are commonly prescribed for anxiety, also increase GABA transmissions in the brain.  However, these drugs often have adverse side effects, can leave patients with a hangover after the drug wears off, and can even cause seizures in individuals that discontinue use after long periods of treatment.  Picamillon works in a more natural way which reduces the risk of dangerous side effects.

    best-nootropics-for-cognitive-enhancement

    Summary

    Nootropics are generally inexpensive and affordable, however, I have spoken to many users that have tried several smart drugs and did not receive any benefit from their use, so they threw in the towel and continue to struggle or sought prescription drugs from a medical doctor.  After discussing their trials further, I found that most of them tried nootropics in the earlier days when the plethora of information and many studies that exist today were non-existent.  Hopefully this article helps you determine your goals, find a reliable supplier with quality products, and gives you a good idea of which smart drugs are best for the different factors of cognition that you wish to improve.  Most likely, you’re not going to find the best nootropics for you on the first try, but this information should help eliminate some of the blindness that many of us experienced during our trial and error searches for effective nootropics.

  • in ,

    6 Amazing Benefits of the Sulbutiamine Nootropic

    We’ve all heard about the different forms of Vitamin B that are essential to human life.  These vitamins are essential to life because they’re responsible for the production of neurotransmitters in our brains, they allow us to absorb certain nutrients, and they allow our bodies to metabolize foods and generate energy.  So it’s no surprise that a supplement called sulbutiamine, that was derived from one of these B vitamins offers a wide variety of benefits to people, especially those that are deficient in Vitamin B1 (thiamine).

    In the mid-1900s Japan was experiencing an epidemic in individuals called beriberi.  Beriberi affected the central nervous system and was believe to be caused by low levels of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine).  A Japanese naval doctor synthesized sulbutiamine while trying to find a drug that could significantly increase thiamine levels in the body (or increase thiamine bioavailability).  Sulbutiamine consists of two modified thiamine molecules, then bound together which seems to be more bioavailable and lipophilic than thiamine, also allowing it to more easily cross the blood-brain barrier.  The first known synthesis of sulbutiamine was reported in 1965 by Taisho Pharmaceuticals.

    Benefits of Sulbutiamine Use

    Sulbutiamine has ergogenic and stimulant-like properties

    Sulbutiamine is not necessarily deemed an official stimulant and does not possess direct psychostimulant effects, but it does have positive effects on the central nervous system which may, in effect, boost energy levels and have impact on the body’s sub-systems that contribute to stimulating properties in the body.  Sulbutiamine is a popular treatment for Asthenia which is a condition that causes fatigue of the muscles.

    B Vitamins, as well as sulbutiamine, are essential to our body’s metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and some proteins into energy.  Those that are deficient in thiamine most likely are not functioning at peak performances.  Therefore, sulbutiamine will likely provide ergogenic benefits by increasing muscular output from the increase in metabolism and ATP.

    In 2009, after a discovery that sulbutiamine caused a false positive for the anabolic steroid boldenone, a Russian laboratory re-analyzed its subjects’ tests for Sulbutiamine and found that over 100 subjects had tested positive for the sulbutiamine compound.  After further investigation and after speaking with some of the users, they had found that sulbutiamine was being used as a supplement for its ergogenic effects.

    Sulbutiamine has neuroprotective benefits

    There are several studies that suggest sulbutiamine acts to protect the brain against stress responses and may prevent many natural stresses from having a negative impact on the brain.  One of the most suggestive studies showed that sulbutiamine was able to increase neural activity in the hippocampus of a test subject suffering from oxygen-glucose deprivation.  The hippocampus is one of the first parts of the brain to be affected by ischemia (oxygen deprivation).  The positive effects of sulbutiamine on ischemia suggest that it could act as a neuroprotective agent in those with oxygen deprivation in the brain.

    Sulbutiamine is effective for mental fatigue

    Sulbutiamine’s lipid solubility makes it more bioavailable in the brain.  The chemical compound is able to easily cross the blood-brain barrier.  Once it enters the brain, it is converted to thiamine, thereby increasing thiamine levels which enhance brain cell energy overall due to increased and faster metabolism of nutrients.

    Mental fatigue is probably one of the most common symptoms that lead users to take the sulbutiamine nootropic.  While studies have been conducted on the chemical for its effects on metal fatigue, the wide availability of sulbutiamine supplements at a very low cost has led to wide experimental use by college students and others that experience mental fatigue.  Many of these users post their sulbutiamine experience in the form of a sulbutiamine review on internet forums, or nootropics websites that they purchase the chemical from.  The majority of users tend to express very positive effects of their sulbutiamine use.  Many users also create their own sulbutiamine stack, or a cocktail of nootropics, supplements, vitamins or minerals that are believed to work synergistically with each other to combat mental fatigue and to produce peak brain performance or maximum creativity with their everyday patterns of thinking.

    Many members of sulbutiamine forums report that the effects of sulbutiamine are similar to effects of the popular drug, modafinil (sold under the brand name Provigil).  Modafinil is a drug that is prescribed for narcolepsy, mental fatigue, shift work disorder/jet lag, and as a treatment for ADHD.  Modafinil, like sulbutiamine, is not an official stimulant, but has stimulant-like properties and has proven to be very useful for mental fatigue, allowing its users to work or study for longer hours than they would be able to without use.

    Increase in memory processes

    The sulbutiamine nootropic is also commonly used for memory enhancement. Sulbutiamine is thought to have positive impacts on the neurotransmitters dopamine, glutamate, and acetylcholine in the brain.  These effects on neurotransmission are most likely responsible for sulbutamine’s memory enhancement effects.

    Dopamine is well-known for producing pleasure or reward in individuals and is thought to be a key-player in learning and cognition.  This is why ADHD drugs and treatments often stimulate the neurotransmitter dopamine because it has shown to stimulate attention, learning, focus, and memory improvement when there is an abundance of the neurotransmitter in the brain.  Acetylcholine is also known to play an important fact on memory creation, retention, and recall.  Glutamate triggers a response termed LTP, or long-term potentiation, which enables simultaneous-firing neurons to be strengthened for long periods of time.  This increased glutamatergic activity caused by sulbutiamine is likely responsible for improving memory, learning, and general cognition.

    Sulbutiamine has antidepressant properties

    Sulbutamine has shown to be useful in those with major depressive disorders when used during rehabilitation.  Sulbutiamine aids in biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter GABA which slows down certain activities of the brain.  Anti-anxiolytic drugs such as benzodiazepines mimic GABA, thereby decreasing anxiety and stress in individuals which is often a common contributor towards depression disorders.

    Other sulbutiamine studies suggested that it may help reduce shyness and social anxiety in people that are afraid of public speaking and those with general social issues.  The chemical seems to have positive impacts on those that are emotionally guarded, timid, or fearful of interacting with others in society. Another sulbutiamine mechanism of action thought to be responsible for sulbutiamine antidepressant effects are the supplement’s impacts on dopamine transmissions in the brain.  It is also thought that sulbutiamine effects act on dopamine activity in a manner that does not encourage receptor down-regulation or tolerance to its use.

    Possible treatment for men with erectile dysfunction

    Not only is sulbutiamine well-known for having increased cognitive benefits, but it is also used as a treatment for men with Erectile Dysfunction (ED) which makes it another popular choice as a supplement for men.  Many users have also reported increases in libido while using sulbutiamine.  While sulbutiamine libido and erectile dysfunction benefits are not fully understood, a study conducted on 20 men with erectile dysfunction for 30 days reported that 16 of the test subjects had positive effects with sulbutiamine treatment.

     

    Summary

    Sulbutiamine side effects are almost non-existent in most users.  The most common side effects reported with sulbutiamine are irritability and skin rash.  More rare side effects include headache and anxiety.  Most side effects were reported in users using a sulbutiamine dosage that was multiple times higher than the recommended dosage of 400mg twice daily.

    Because sulbutiamine is more of a vitamin or nutrient that is essential to the body vs. a foreign drug that the body recognizes as a substance that needs to be cleared from the body, it is able to be used daily without developing tolerance to the chemical and its benefits.

    Sulbutiamine is available for purchase over the counter at many health stores and online.  It is sold by most nootropics websites and sites that specialize in cognitive enhancement supplements.  The supplement is available in capsules for easy dosing and is also commonly available in powder form because sulbutiamine is almost tasteless.  Many users mix the powder in with a drink or with water alone for quick ingestion.  Whether purchased in capsules or powder form, many sites provide up to a 3-month supply for less than $10-15.

    Because sulbutiamine offers such a wide variety of treatments and so many benefits, while being generally recognized as safe (without many reported side effects) and because of the low cost of the supplement, it continues to gain popularity and will likely continue to be a nootropics that will be studied more and more.  There are most likely many more potential benefits to be reported from future studies and reports from users of the supplement.

  • in ,

    Wonder Drug Phenylpiracetam Seems to Benefit All

    Who wouldn’t want to be smarter and more athletic if they had the choice?  In today’s world, information is everything.  Those that retain and process the most information will have an obvious advantage over others.  We all have our limitations, but more and more discoveries like the smart drug phenylpiracetam may start to help us overcome these limitations and allow our species to advance further.  Phenylpiracetam is becoming one of the more popular “nootropics”, or smart drugs, that are also gaining popularity by the day due to their apparent ability to protect the brain, improve memory, creativity, and offer other general cognitive enhancements.

     

    In previous generations, a person’s hands might have been considered the most important body part, allowing them to defend themselves, build shelters, hunt/gather, etc., but the majority of us would probably consider our brains a more important body part today.   From the time we wake up in the morning, we’re rushed to work and forced to organize all of our thoughts and plan all of our tasks.  We get into our offices and strategize innovative ways to beat our competition.  Society constantly has us thinking about how to approach friends, colleagues, family, or potential customers.  Because our minds are constantly running haywire, Phenylpiracetam proves to be a very beneficial supplement for the modern-day thinker.  The drug also offers benefits to the elderly, those with brain trauma and cognitive decline, as well as those with severe mental diseases.  Below are some of the most common characteristic effects that the drug phenylpiracetam has to offer:

    • Antidepressant
    • Antipsychotic
    • Anticonvulsant
    • Antianxiolytic
    • Anti-amnesic
    • Myoclonus treatment
    • Parkinson’s Disease Treatment
    • Child Autism Treatment
    • Fatigue Treatment (general stimulant)

    What is Phenylpiracetam?

    phenylpiracetam

    Phenylpiracetam is a chemical that was discovered in 1983 by a scientist in Russia.  It is a member of the Racetam drug family and is a phenylated analog of the drug piracetam which was heavily studied by the Russians decades ago and still remains the subject of many studies today.  Unfortunately, many of the Russian studies are not available to the Western world of medicine, but its popularity and interests by the Russians have made others just as curious if not more.  Phenylpiracetam’s brand names are Phenotropil and Carphedon, both of which are prescription drugs and prescribed for many conditions in many countries around the world.  There are also hundreds of cognitive enhancement supplements that include the drug, available on the internet.

    Phenylpiracetam was derived from its cousin, piracetam.  Piracetam was the first discovered racetam drug and was the most studied out of the racetam drug family.  Piracetam was originally discovered in the 60’s in Belgium, but did not receive a lot of attention until the Russians got ahold of it and found some of its amazing benefits/uses.  It was this Russian intrigue that led to the creation of Phenylpiracetam which is piracetam with a phenyl branch added to the compound.  Phenylpiracetam has greater liquidity than piracetam, meaning it is better absorbed by fats/oils, which makes it more bioavailable.  This extra bioavailability requires a much lower dose of the drug to achieve the same results.  Phenylpiracetam has also seems to be more stimulating than regular piracetam which is neither a stimulant or depressant.

    impact-of-phenylpiracetam

    How does Phenylpiracetam work and what is it used for?

    Like most drugs, we’re not 100% sure how its mechanisms of action work because we do not fully understand how each part of the brain works and how it will react to foreign substances.  However, there are several theories that have been verified with studies to suggest accurate mechanism of actions.  Double-blind placebo studies can be expensive and without a large pharmaceutical company paying for these studies, many deserving studies remain unconducted. So, there is still much to learn about this promising drug.  The popularity of the substance and the low risk for adverse side effects has led to the use and experimentation of thousands of people.  Many of these people post their experiences with the drug on the internet.  Most users seem to have at least some positive effects from using the smart drug.

    One of the most common uses for phenylpiracetam is the use for neuroprotection and use as a general cognitive enhancer.  Phenylpiracetam and other racetam drugs have shown to increase the amount of fluid in brain cell membranes which increases mitochondrial output of the cells.  Think of all of the times you have heard how important it is to stay hydrated. When your cells become dehydrated, they do not perform at peak performance and some cells may actually die off if not properly hydrated.  Phenylpiracetam basically keeps the brains cells extra-hydrated, allowing them to operate at peak performance.  The drug has also shown to be a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor and is believed to act on the brain’s ion channels which increase neuronal excitability.  Again, this is another mechanism that increases the general output of our brain cells.  Most drugs that have this ability come with many unwanted side effects like nervousness, anxiety, jitters, etc., but phenylpiracetam typically manages to do so without causing these effects.  In fact, as we’ll discuss later, the drug often reverses the effects of anxiety in most users.

    Phenylpiracetam is also prescribed to stroke patients that display cognitive decline.  One reason that phenylpiracetam is thought to have a positive impact on stoke patients is because the drug increases blood flow to the brain, delivering more oxygen.  However, it is still unknown if the increased blood flow is a primary effect of the drug or if it is a side effect caused by the increase of brain activity.  Most strokes, such as ischemic strokes, are caused by parts of the brain not receiving enough blood flow or oxygen, causing the cells to die off.  It is thought that phenylpiracetam helps deliver blood to these areas where the victim had the stroke.  When a person has a stroke, it is typically a long recovery process if they’re even able to recover.  The brain doesn’t grow back to its previous state, but studies have shown that the brain exhibits a degree of plasticity, meaning that other brain cells may be able to learn how to operate similar to their neighboring cells and can take over their tasks if needed.  It is presumed that phenylpiracetam’s positive effects are primarily from delivering blood to the part of the brain that was deprived of oxygen, but it is unclear if it also has a positive effect on the brain’s plasticity as well.

    Phenylpiracetam is often used to help treat those with Alzheimer’s disease or organic cognitive decline with aging.  Alzheimer’s disease is an incurable disease that affects a person’s memories.  After onset, the disease typically worsens quickly until the individual no longer remembers friends, family, tasks, etc.  While phenylpiracetam’s neuronal excitability/output and increase blood flow probably contribute to the positive effects seen by those with Alzheimer’s, the drug has also shown to increase the use of an abundant neurotransmitter in our brains called acetylcholine.  Acetylcholine has been proven to be a very important contributor to our memory processes.

    Conducting studies on phenylpiracetam, scientists have shown that the drug acts as an anti-amnesiac, allowing those with forgotten memories caused by trauma to remember certain things.  One of the common side effects of a benzodiazepine drug is memory problems/difficulties.  Phenylpiracetam has also shown to help those with lost memories caused by this benzodiazepine side effect.  Not only that, but studies with mice have shown to reverse much of the depressant effects of benzodiazepine drugs, while not affecting their anxiolytic benefits.

    Phenylpiracetam has also shown to have positive psychomotor effects in humans and is being studied as a possible treatment to those with Parkinson’s disease.  For those that aren’t aware of the horrible disease, it is caused by nerve cell damage that triggers a response causing dopamine levels to drop very low.  Some common symptoms of Parkinson ’s disease are slow movements, muscle stiffness, loss of balance and motor control.   Choline and acetylcholine not only impact our memory, but also play a part in motor function and muscle movements which probably contribute to the positive impact of the disease.  Phenylpiracetam is not only being studied and being prescribed for Parkinson’s disease, but is also commonly prescribed as an anticonvulsant.

    Phenylpiracetam has shown to act as a mild norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor which likely contributes to its stimulating effects.  The drug has been used to treat those with fatigue.  The World Anti-Doping Agency added it to their banned list of stimulant drugs due to its stimulating effects, positive effects on mental and psychomotor responses, and its odd ability to allow the body to better handle extreme cold temperatures, prevention of hypoxia, and increased resistance to stress.

    Not only does phenylpiracetam act as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, but evidence suggests that it may also act as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, which would make the drug a NDRI (norepinephrine dopamine reuptake inhibitor).  These characteristics of the drug likely contribute to some of the anti-depressant effects that seen with its use.  Phenylpiracetam has shown to benefit those with sleeping disorders.  The increased extracellular dopamine levels from phenylpiracetam use are most likely what is responsible for this benefit of the drug.

    There is also evidence to suggest that the miracle drug, phenylpiracetam, may boost motivation in individuals.  The motivation increase is likely caused by the elevation in both dopamine and norepinephrine levels since both of these neurotransmitters are typically responsible for feelings of well-being and motivation.  After all, depleted levels of these chemicals thought to be the main cause of attention-deficit disorder (ADHD) and may cause distraction of day-to-day tasks.  The most common treatment for ADHD is stimulant drugs, such as amphetamines or methylphenidate.  Both drugs boost neurotransmitters like serotonin, epinephrine, and dopamine.  These drugs often guide the brain to determine what’s important to focus on, store memories of, or to filter out/not pay attention to.  However, these drugs often come with adverse side effects that outweigh the benefits of the drug.  Many of these side effects include increase heart rate, increased blood pressure, mood changes, lack of impulse control, anxiety, paranoia, and sleep disorders.  These unwanted side effects may make phenylpiracetam a favorable drug to the typical stimulants prescribed for ADHD.  In a study conducted with rats, the rats that were given phenylpiracetam showed work outputs of 350%, while the rats given amphetamines had a work output of 150% and rats given methylphenidate had an output of 170%.

    Racetam drugs are a derived from the neurotransmitter GABA.  However, GABA Receptors and GABA metabolism do not seem to be directly affected by racetams.  Phenylpiracetam seems to have both anti-epileptic and anti-anxiolytic properties.  It is unclear how the drug helps those with seizures, but it is thought to have something to do with the relation to GABA since GABA stimulation often helps those that suffer from epilepsy.  The anti-anxiolytic effects could in part be related to GABA as well.  GABA slows down the firing of neurons in the brain, often resulting in relaxation or depression of the Central Nervous System.  The increased levels of dopamine may also assist in the reduction of anxiety in individuals.

    There are also many other interesting properties that phenylpiracetam and drugs of the Racetam family seem to possess.  Studies suggest that racetams promote alpha brain waves when ingested.  There are four types of brain waves that our brains emit that correspond with our mental state/brain activity.  Alpha brain waves are the type of waves that are emitted when we’re in our deepest and most active thoughts while remaining relaxed and thinking clearly.  Another interesting study has shown that racetams may promote interhemispheric connectivity, meaning that our left-brain and right-brain hemispheres communicate more.  This may allow us to generate creative thoughts with a logical touch.  Some left brain-dominant users have suggested that racetam use allows them to think more creatively and some have even described experiences such as seeing colors much brighter than usual after taking a dose of a racetam.

    Is Phenylpiracetam Safe?

    Amazingly, this wonder drug proves to be one of the safest drugs available.  One reason it remains to be a chemical of interest to many scientists around the world is because of the apparent safety of the drug and lack of side effects, while being able to provide substantial benefits – especially to many that suffer from life-destroying diseases.  Many drugs that are prescribed to those with diseases like Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s come with very intrusive side effects or risks that can be more dangerous than the actual disease itself.  However, since all humans are different, there are always some individuals that will react differently to a chemical than the general population.  While adverse side effects are somewhat rare in the use of phenylpiracetam, some of the most common side effects that have been reported with phenylpiractam use include headaches, upset stomach, insomnia, increased anxiety, solumnance, weight gain, and general weakness.

    Phenylpiracetam is usually taken in doses of 100mg – 200mg, 1 to 3 times daily.  General suggestions state not to exceed 750mg per day because there seem to be no added benefits when ingesting doses larger than this.  By taking more than 750mg per day, you’re basically only increasing your chances of unwanted side effects.  100mg seems to be the most common and most effective single dose.  While the lethal dose of phenylpiracetam in humans is unknown, there have been no reports of phenylpiracetam overdoses.  Studies in rats show that racetam drugs have an extremely low acute toxicity, meaning that it would take an incredibly large amount of the drug to cause toxic effects or poisoning of the body.

    Phenylpiracetam is often combined with other supplements and cognitive enhancers by those who frequently use smart drugs.  Many claim to be able to reach their desired state of mind and focus with a stack consisting of certain smart drugs, which often include phenylpiracetam.  Because these smart drugs are not extremely powerful or intoxicating, and since they’re generally ingested in low doses, instances of adverse side effects due to drug interactions are uncommon.  However, caution should always be used when combining any kind of drug. It is important to research all drug combinations to ensure that the drugs to not potentiate/negate each other, or create a chemical byproduct when processed by the liver that may be harmful to the body.

    Phenylpiracetam Availability

    While phenylpiracetam is a prescription drug in many countries around the world, it is not a prescription drug in most western countries like the United States.  In the United States, it has not been evaluated or approved by the FDA and is not allowed to be sold in the U.S., but there are many suppliers that sell the drug online.  This is common with drugs that are not patented or sold by Big Pharma companies.  Whether they like to admit it or not, the FDA is an entity of the U.S. Government which is ultimately a privatized business.  Without receiving funding or a commission of sales, they’re not likely to study, evaluate, monitor, or allow sales of a chemical unless being rewarded appropriately for doing so – unless, of course, the drug is harming many people or being abused.  In the instance of harm, they would likely label the drug a controlled substance.

    I was a member of a forum back when nootropics first started gaining popularity, where we had open discussions about chemicals of interest pertaining to life extension and cognitive enhancement.  Racetams gained a lot of attention quickly during those days.  Several suppliers started providing the smart drug at an affordable price and sales seemed to be booming.  The largest supplier in the U.S. was also a member of our forum.  He couldn’t have been happier with his quick success.  He was researching as much as possible to find other safe smart drugs that he could manufacture and provide the public.  And then it came – a letter from the FDA demanding that he seize all sales of Piracetam from any business that he owned in the United States.  A couple of the other large suppliers also received these letters around the same time and they stopped selling to U.S. citizens.  Many of the smaller suppliers continued production and sales because they knew that if they stayed under a certain amount of sales, they would sail under the FDA’s radar.  There are still many suppliers today that are producing phenylpiracetam and other cognitive enhancers that have not yet been approved by the FDA and selling them to people in the U.S. from the U.S.  However, to my knowledge all of the businesses are online-based businesses.  I have not yet seen phenylpiracetam or any other racetams being sold in an actual retail store.

    Summary

    In summary, phenylpiracetam seems to be quite an amazing and promising drug.  It provides benefits to students that need a kick of motivation, focus, and memory enhancement.  The drug may also be useful in treating some of the worst diseases humans encounter like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.  Phenylpiracetam seems to safely offer everybody some type of benefit or relief.  I have taken this drug at times throughout the last decade and will continue to do so as long as it’s available.  If you think that the smart drug may benefit you in some way, you may want to give it a try while it’s still obtainable.  I am almost certain that it will continue to be heavily studied by the scientific community as well as by the general public and I’m almost certain that additional findings and benefits will continue to surface in years to come.

  • in ,

    6 Vision Exercises You Should Do to for Better Sight

    Sight is a beautiful sense to keep intact and healthy. It allows us to better appreciate our environment, and is very useful in day-to-day activities. Perfect eyesight is given to a good number of people, yet the rest of us have to deal with vision issues. The rise of technology, desk jobs and excessive phone and computer usage have led to the worldwide development of unhealthy lifestyles, eye strain and poor posture, and with it come more vision problems that could have been avoided. The use of contact lenses exposes the wearer to bacteria and infection, and glasses invite dependency. Here are 6 exercises designed to move the ocular muscles to restore good vision.

     

    Doing the pencil push up

    pencil

    Fix your eyes at a marked point on a pencil held vertically in front of your face. Make sure it is your central line of vision. Move the pencil up and down while focusing on the mark ten times. Afterwards, rotate the pencil clockwise then counterclockwise, still keeping your eye on the mark. This exercise helps the ocular muscles achieve a faster reaction time and rate of movement, and can help conditions wherein there is difficulty focusing. A variation of the exercise you can do is to change the distance of the pencil from your face by moving it closer then farther away. This will stimulate the muscles that adjust to depth.

     

    Sunning

    sunning

    Sunning is an exercise that focuses on the contraction of the iris, which is the sphincter muscle that makes the pupils wider. It helps with light accommodation and reduces light sensitivity especially in those to tend to squint. This exercise is done with the eyes closed, and is done during the daytime due to the requirement of the sun. It involves moving the head from full right rotation to full left rotation, making sure that the eyes are not exposed to the sun during full rotation, yet is exposed to the sun during neutral rotation (or facing forward). This is done for 10 minutes and before the Palming exercise, which we will discuss next.

     

    Palming

    palming

    This method is simple and relaxing, and can be considered a form of mindfulness and meditation exercise that also benefits vision. This is most useful for those who have eyestrain, who suffer from headaches due to vision, and those who have dry eyes and blurry vision after a long day. The key to palming is to find a position comfortable to you. Keep your legs unfolded, and keep your body connected and in a state of relaxation, like you would do in meditation. Prop up your elbows, and put your palms over your closed eyes with one hand overlapping the other. Breathe slowly and deeply, and focus on positive things. You can do this several times a day for a few minutes depending on the time it takes you to relax.

     

    Blinking

    blink

    Although it is natural for us to blink, staring too much at the television, computer screen and the displays of our mobile devices actually reduce the rate of our blinking, allowing the eyes to dry up and eventually making it prone to scratching, irritation, and vision problems. Blinking is an activity that will keep the eye lubricated and healthy, and is important especially when work involves staring at a computer screen all throughout the day. It is important to take breaks after 20 minutes, and blink a few times. Closing the eyes for a few additional seconds can also help.

     

     

    Shifting

    shifting

    Teaching the eyes to transfer focus from one point to another is called shifting. You literally just shift your focal point from one object to another. To start, pick two objects in the scenery you would like to focus on, for starters it would be nice if the two objects were at the same distance from you. Then, look at one object, then the other, then back to the first again. Keep on transferring focus for a few seconds. To add variation to this, and to add a little difficulty, try changing one focus to something farther or nearer than the other, to challenge your depth perception as well.

     

    Visual Treat

    scene

    One of the most relaxing things for the eye is the color green. This is the reason why a lot of offices have plants, or paintings with landscapes on them. These are not merely for decoration and aesthetics, but are also actually helpful for the eyes to calm down. It is also recommended to look at something green after staring at a computer screen for too long. Give your vision a treat by going to a place wherein there is abundance of green, or of nature to be exact. Fresh air does a body good, and fresh green landscape is what the eyes need after a long week of working.

     

  • in ,

    Vitaminosis: How to Get the Right Amount of Vitamins

    many types of vitamins that each have potential for vitaminosis

    Most people suffer from at least one type of medical condition, whether chronic or acute, and spend hundreds if not thousands of dollars each year in medical bills when the root cause very well may be some type of vitaminosis that could have been easily avoided.  There are many types of vitamins and minerals that are necessary for the human body to function optimally and each person processes these nutrients differently which makes it difficult to maintain optimal levels.  With our unique DNA, poor diets, medications, and supplement intakes, it can be very easy to develop hypervitaminosis or hypovitaminosis which will most likely lead to serious problems if not corrected.

     

    What is Vitaminosis?

    Vitaminosis describes a condition caused by a lack or over-abundance of vitamins retained by the body.  There are two types of vitaminosis – the first being “hypervitaminosis” which is high storage levels of certain vitamins in the body which can cause toxic side effects, or poisoning, in the body.  If untreated serious conditions may develop.  Another type of vitaminosis is “hypovitaminosis” or “avitaminosis”, also known as a vitamin deficiency.

    many types of vitamins that each have potential for vitaminosis

    What is Hypervitaminosis

    Hypervitaminosis is not as common as hypovitaminosis, but is becoming a more popular diagnosis by many doctors due to a rise in popularity of health supplements and from a lack in vitamin education.  One of the leading causes of hypervitaminosis is accidental ingestion of vitamin supplements  by young children.  Another common cause of hypervitaminosis is over-ingestion of multiple supplements containing the same types of vitamins and nutrients.  Studies estimate that 50% of Americans in the U.S. take multivitamins and that over 20% take herbal supplements.  However, most studies reveal that these supplements may cause more harm than good because people typically aren’t supplementing the correct vitamins in the correct dosages.

    Not all people process vitamins and nutrients the same way either, which may also cause build-up of certain substances which can poison the body.  Hypervitaminosis tends to occur more with fat-soluble vitamins rather than water-soluble vitamins.   Below are some of the culprits that are typically seen in hypervitaminosis instances:
    Hypervitaminosis A – May result in osteoporosis, bone softening, vision problems, and mitochondrial damage (redox environment).  Side effects of excessive vitamin A include anxiety/irritability, nausea and anorexia, hair loss, fever, fatigue, and many other symptoms

    Hypervitaminosis D – Often contributes to cardiovascular disease, esophageal cancer, and sometimes premature aging

    Hypervitaminosis E – May lead to blotchy skin, high triglyceride levels in the blood, lower levels of thyroid hormones, anticoagulation or increased bleeding (lower levels of Vitamin K)

    Hypervitaminosis K – Although maximum limits of vitamin K are unknown, it is clear that common symptoms of vitamin K overdose include itchy/red skin, rashes, and hemolysis (in newborns)

     

    What is Hypovitaminosis

    Hypovitaminosis is also known as a vitamin deficiency in human beings.  There are several different factors that contribute to hypovitaminosis, such as age, ethnicity, diet, organ function, water intake, medications, and other variables.  According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), over 90% of Americans have some type of vitamin deficiency.  Vitamin deficiencies aren’t typically an instant occurrence; they usually occur over a long period of time and slowly produce side effects as the condition worsens.

    Below are some of the most common vitamin deficiencies that are treated in the United States:

    Hypovitaminosis A – Deficiencies of vitamin A are said to be the leading cause of blindness in children under five years old around the world.  Side effects of vitamin A deficiencies include malabsorption of lipids, lower amounts of bile production, night blindness, and even total blindness

    Hypovitaminosis E – It is estimated that 80% of Americans are Vitamin E deficient.  Lack of vitamin E may contribute to neuromuscular disorders, neurological disorders, fat malabsorption, vision problems, and impairs to immune responses

    Hypovitaminosis C – Over 50% of Americans are deficient in Vitamin C.  Hypovitaminosis C may lead to weakness, ache/pains, weight loss, and even scurvy (with a chronic vitamin C deficiency)

     

    Getting the Right Amount of Vitamins

    healthy diets lower chances of vitaminosis

    With studies showing that most of us are deficient in at least one type of vitamin, and that many of us have built up toxic amounts of other vitamins, it’s easy to see that you should probably start paying more attention to your vitamin intake.  This is especially true for those that have a disease, condition, or unwanted side effects like fatigue or skin problems.  Below are some of the best ways to make sure that you’re getting the right amount of vitamins for your body to function at optimum levels:

    • Get a blood test – Getting a blood test is one of the absolute best ways to find out if you’re building up too many vitamins or if you’re deficient in one or more vitamins or minerals.  Most insurance companies now fully cover, or at least cover the majority of 1-2 blood tests per year.  If you’re experiencing symptoms that have many possible causes, most likely your doctor will recommend a blood test.  They’re always open to giving you one if you ask for it as well.
    • Do your research – For more information on hypervitaminosis or hypovitaminosis, visit the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) website.  You’ll be amazed what you’ll learn in a few minutes on their website.
    • Follow FDA Daily Values – The FDA website is another great source for educating yourself on vitamins and minerals.  The FDA developed the food pyramid that is designed to show how many servings of each food group one should consume to reach the correct amounts of fats, oils, proteins, and carbohydrates, as well as vitamins and minerals.  The FDA also requires companies to list their ingredients and vitamin contents on packages of food products
    • Change your diet – After educating yourself about vitamin toxicity and vitamin deficiencies, read about vitamin contents in different types of foods.  Then, alter your diet accordingly to reach the desired amounts of vitamins your body needs.  If your doctor discovers you’re vitamin deficient, find foods rich in that vitamin and try to eat more of them.
    • Eat organic – Although organic foods can often be much more expensive than non-organic, they’re typically loaded with more vitamins and nutrients, and may potentially save you money in the long-run considering the amount of money you may spend on doctors and treatments if you develop a condition caused my hyper/hypovitaminosis.  Non-organic store-bought fruits and vegetables often contain extra moisture and additives which may dilute vitamins.  Many non-organic products are often genetically modified to have a better appearance, shelf life, and to grow faster, but these foods often do not contain high levels of nutrients.  Organic foods are often grown in fertile soil as well, by local farms, which contain more nutrients in the soil.
    • Keep a food journal – Keeping a food journal is a great way to track your vitamin intake.  There are many apps these days like “MyPlate” and “MyFoodDiary” that allow you to quickly enter in each type of food & the serving size, or pick meals from popular restaurants, and it calculates/tracks nutrient information for you.  Studies show that people that use food journals for long periods of time each much better than those that do not keep track of their food intake.  Food journals are also a great way to help you plan meals that are vitamin rich, and allow you to quickly generate shopping lists.
    • Drink adequate amounts of water – Dehydration may lead to build-up of certain vitamins as well as lack of vitamin absorption.  Too much water intake may contribute to vitamin deficiencies.  If you have a job where you do hard manual labor in hot environments, it’s important to drink large amounts of water to stay hydrated, but you may want to consider taking a vitamin supplement to replenish lost vitamins.
    • Talk to your doctor about your medications – In recent years, doctors and scientists have discovered that there are many drugs, that are commonly prescribed, that deplete vitamins.  Some of these drugs act as diuretics and some have unique mechanisms of action that metabolize or block absorption of vitamins and nutrients.  Some medications are also capable of causing hypervitaminosis in patients taking them.  Ask your doctor or pharmacist if any of your medications have an effect on your vitamin levels and they’ll be happy to tell your or research the medication for you.
    • Stop smoking – It seems like you hear this in every single health recommendation –and there’s a reason.  Cigarette smoke can wreak havoc on your vitamin levels.  Cigarette smoke contains free radicals (molecules with an odd number of electrons) which are unstable and oxidize cells in the body.  Antioxidants are molecules that are able to give a spare electron without changing their composition which stabilize and neutralize free radicals.  Vitamin C and E are two of the best antioxidants available; however, large amounts of smoke deplete these antioxidants.  Vitamin C also aids in collagen production, so without adequate amounts of vitamin C, you may experience premature aging or skin problems.
    • Choose supplements wisely – For those that have no symptoms of vitamin toxicity or depletion and that eat a healthy diet, a multivitamin or supplement should not be necessary.  If you suspect that your vitamin levels are out of whack from a poor diet, depletion, etc., it would be wise to conduct a blood test before taking any kind of supplement, but most doctors say that taking a standard multivitamin may be healthy and used as a preventative.  If you are currently taking any vitamin supplements, be sure to read the labels and factor in vitamins levels with your diet so that you’re not getting too many fat soluble vitamins.

     

    As you can see, there are many factors that affect vitamin levels in your body.  With the large number of essential vitamins and nutrients and the large number of variables that affect these vitamin levels, vitamin toxicity or vitamin depletion may be more common than you would think.  Hypervitaminosis and hypovitaminosis may be the underlying cause of thousands of conditions, so by educating yourself, drinking adequate water, discussing your levels with your physician, and eating right, you may save money and ultimately live a longer, healthier life.

  • in

    10 McDonalds v Burger King Foods Compared

    With the ever faster pace of the lives we are living, preparing quality home cooked meals has become nearly impossible, which is why the fast food chains have been growing at an exponential rate and pretty much everyone in the western world is now feeding from such chains for a big part. While fast food may often be pretty delicious, it is usually extremely caloric, full of fats and carbs and low in useful nutrients, making it extremely harmful to our overall health.

    At the very least, understanding the composition of these fast foods is important to keeping as healthy and possible which is why we decided to take a look at the two top fast food chains, McDonalds and Burger King and compare their products in caloric content and other nutrients.

    1. Beef burger

    McDonalds Bugrer

    In the category of beef burgers, McDonalds burgers are certainly the more harmful one. A single Patty Beef Burger from McDonalds contains 530 calories, 240 of them coming from fat, while Burger King’s Bacon Double Cheese Burger only has 390, 190 of these coming from fats. Considering the fact these two burgers are fairly similar in taste, the Burger King option is definitely the smarter choice, simply having far fewer calories per serving, meaning you will be gaining less fat while enjoying the same dish.

    2. Fries

    BK Fries

    Another area where Burger King beats McDonalds is fries. While small fries at McDonalds have 340 calories and 2 grams of protein, the same serving at Burger King only has 230 caloeries and double the protein. This means Burger King’s fries are not only less caloric but also better for your muscles as well as the difference in protein content will make some difference in the long run. If you have issues with sodium rich foods however, McDonalds can be a better options as their fries don’t come pre salted meaning you can reduce the amount of sodium you take in compared to Burger King fries.

    3. Beverages

    McDonalds Shake

    A 12 oz smoothies at McDonalds is has 210 calories, consisting of 47 grams of carbs with 3 grams of fiber. The Burger King smoothies on the other hand are a bit less caloric, with 190 calories, 44 grams of carbs and 2 grams of fiber, providing pretty much the same nutritional value each. This makes the choice all yours and when it comes to smoothies we don’t have much of a preference.

    4. Hamburgers

    Whopper

    When comparing McDonalds hamburgers with Burger King Whoppers, we once again come up with McDonalds as winners. The main reason is that McDonalds actually offer small burgers with 240 calories in 98 grams of meat while Burger King only offer a much bigger 290 gram burger with a huge 650 calories. This means eating a hamburger at McDonalds will be a healthier choice, as it will have you ingesting fewer calories and generally eating a smaller meal, which is always the healthier and better choice. Overeating leads to obesity and heart disease, so if you have to eat one, go for the McDonalds hamburger.

    5. Salads

    McDonalds Salads

    If there is one area where McDonalds actually beats Burger King in calorie counts, it is their salads. Because you get an option to order a salad without any dressing at McDonalds, these salads are not necesarrily high in calorie count at all, meaning they can actually be healthy. Burger King salads on the other hand tend to have a lot more calories and in some cases the number goes up to three times higher than that in McDonalds salads.

    Burger King is the healthier option in the majority of areas, salads are simply not one of them, and McDonalds must be commended for the fact they offer some fairly nutritious and non-caloric salads to their customers, aside from their other more caloric dishes.

    When taking trips to McDonalds you may want to consider ordering a salad instead of a burger every once in a while to combat the calorie count as it is well known ingesting fewer calories will reduce your chances of developing heart diseases, obesity and the other illnesses that plague our fast paces generations.

    6. Breakfast menu

    McDonalds Breakfast

    Both chains offer breakfast menus. McDonalds meny with bacon, eggs and cheese bagel contains 530 calories, with some vitamins, iron and calcium provided by the food. On the other hand, a breakfast at Burger King containing the same food comes with only 370 calories and 10% of the daily intake of the aforementioned minerals and vitamins. Burger King certainly comes out on top in this category as the much lower calorie count does matter a lot.

    7. Chicken nuggets

    Chicken Nuggets

    Chicken nuggets in general are not a very healthy choice and a small portion of 4 nuggets at Burger King will come with 190 calories and 360 mg of sodium. The same dish at McDonalds contains pretty much the same amounts of nutrients, again leaving the choice up to you. What we are saying is, if you choose to eat chicken nuggets, it won’t really matter which of the two chains you pick.

    8. Fish Food

    Fillet-o-Fish

    Even the fish burgers at these two chains are pretty caloric. McDonalds Fillet-o-Fish for instance has 190 calories, 5% sugars and 15% protein content, while the Burger King’s altenrative, Big Fish goes even further with 500 calories and the same amounts of nutrients. Burger King’s Big Fish also has more saturated fats than Fillet-o-Fish, making it a generally unhealthier choice and one to be avoided. McDonalds is the clear winner in the fish burger category.

    9. Desserts

    Sundaee

    When it comes to the sweets the two chains compare quite the same. The two desserts we took a look at are Chocolate Fudge Sundae from Burger King and McDonalds, and the two showed pretty much the same stats, with 280 calories and 15 mg of cholesterol in each. Considering they are both the same thing and the calorie counts are not too high, both desserts are reasonable options if you are just looking to treat yourself, but as always, remember not to stuff yourself with these too often.

    10. Chickenburgers

    McChicken

    Burger King offers the healthier chicken burger alternative in their Tendergrill Chicken Sandwich which features 380 caloeis and 730 mg of sodium, as opposed to McDonald’s Premium Grilled Chicken Club Sandwich which has 510 calories and 820 mg of sodium, both higher amounts and more harmful. The huge amounts of sodium in both are however, quite dangerous, but picking the one with less calories and sodium may save you at least a little bit.

     

Load More
Congratulations. You've reached the end of the internet.